gaya

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Gaya

 

Gaya (啊具; 圣瀛, 省瀛, 省濡), also known as Kaya, Garak (啊遏; 式咋, 始摘), Gara (啊扼; 圣轧, 省轧, 始轧, 石轧), Garyang(啊®,圣辙), or Guya (备具, 戏瀛) was a confederacy of chiefdoms that existed in the (Click link for more info and facts about Three Kingdoms era) Three Kingdoms era in ancient (An Asian peninsula (off Manchuria) separating the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan; the Korean name is Choson) Korea.
Gaya is thought to have arisen from a more ancient confederacy of chiefdoms called (Click link for more info and facts about Byeonhan) Byeonhan. The nature of the transition is not clear from historical sources. However, on the basis of archeological sources as well as limited historical indications, scholars such as Cheol (2000) have identified the late (Click link for more info and facts about third century) third century AD as a period of transition from Byeonhan to Gaya. At this time records show increasing military activity and changed funerary customs. This would also coincide in part with the decline of the Chinese (Click link for more info and facts about commanderies) commanderies on the peninsula. Cheol (2000) further argues that this was associated with the replacement of the previous elite in some principalities (including Daegaya) by elements from the Manchurian kingdom of (Click link for more info and facts about Buyeo) Buyeo, who brought a more militaristic style of rule.

According to a legend recorded in the (Click link for more info and facts about Samguk Yusa) Samguk Yusa, in the year (Click link for more info and facts about 42) 42, 6 eggs descended from the heaven with message that they would be kings. 6 eggs hatched and 6 boys were born, and within 12 days they grew mature. One of them, named Suro (荐肺; 庀众), became the king of (Click link for more info and facts about Geumgwan Gaya) Geumgwan Gaya (陛包 啊具), and the other five founded the other five Gayas, namely (Click link for more info and facts about Daegaya) Daegaya (措啊具), Seongsan Gaya (己魂 啊具), (Click link for more info and facts about Ara Gaya) Ara Gaya (酒扼 啊具), (Click link for more info and facts about Goryeong Gaya) Goryeong Gaya (绊飞 啊具), and Sogaya (家啊具).

Different records list different chiefdoms of Gaya. Goryeo Saryak (绊妨荤帆; 驮镇奕赵) lists five; (Click link for more info and facts about Geumgwan Gaya) Geumgwan Gaya, (Click link for more info and facts about Goryeong Gaya) Goryeong Gaya, (Click link for more info and facts about Bihwa Gaya) Bihwa Gaya, (Click link for more info and facts about Ara Gaya) Ara Gaya and Seongsan Gaya.

Situated around the mouth of the (Click link for more info and facts about Nakdong River) Nakdong River, an area with fertile plains, access to the sea, and rich iron deposits, Gaya had an economy based on agriculture and fishing as well as trade. It was particularly known for its ironworking, as Byeonhan had been before it. Gaya exported abundant quantities of iron armor and weaponry to (Click link for more info and facts about Baekje) Baekje and the kingdom of Wa in (Click link for more info and facts about Yamato period) Yamato period Japan. In contrast to the largely commercial and non-political ties of Byeonhan, Gaya seems to have attempted to maintain strong political ties with these kingdoms as well.

The various Gaya mini-states formed a confederacy in the 2nd and 3rd centuries centred around (Click link for more info and facts about Geumgwan Gaya) Geumgwan Gaya in modern (Click link for more info and facts about Gimhae) Gimhae. After a period of decline, the confederacy was revived around the turn of the 5th and 6th centuries, this time centred around (Click link for more info and facts about Daegaya) Daegaya of modern (Click link for more info and facts about Goryeong) Goryeong, but it was unable to defend itself for long against (Click link for more info and facts about Silla) Silla and Baekje. In (Click link for more info and facts about 562) 562, (Click link for more info and facts about Daegaya) Daegaya, the last of the Gaya states, fell to Silla.

The nature of the relationship between the Japanese kingdom of Wa and the Gaya states has been a matter of extensive controversy. Japanese scholars traditionally have argued, on the basis of various sources including the (Click link for more info and facts about Nihonshoki) Nihonshoki, that Gaya was a (One of the 13 British colonies that formed the original states of the United States) colony or (A branch that flows into the main stream) tributary of Wa. Korean scholars have rejected this, on the basis of Korean sources which make no mention of Japanese suzerainty. Today, most scholars regardless of nationality concede that the relationship between Gaya and Wa was close, but not colonial.

 

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